Est 1946

5. Evaluation Overview of
Cylinder Head Remanufacturing

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1. Introduction

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2. Life Cycle Assessment

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3. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

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4. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts

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5. Life Cycle Evaluation Framework

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6. Life Cycle Conclusion

To create an overview of the results and findings from the life cycle assessment, a life cycle evaluation framework is generated to provide an easy overview of the cylinder head life cycle and the Cast Iron Welding Services remanufacturing process, the life cycle inventory of each life cycle stage, and the key findings from each life cycle stage. The framework is divided into three categories: life cycle stages, key activities for each life cycle stage, and the corresponding end outcome from each life cycle stage. The life cycle stage includes cylinder head manufacturing, the Cast Iron Welding Services remanufacturing process, the five sensitivity scenarios, and cylinder head disposal for the end-of-life strategy. The key activities identify the key elements from the inventory analysis including key components or key component groups, key processes, and key information for each life cycle stage. The end outcome identifies the outcome findings from both the inventory analysis and the impact assessment for each individual life cycle stage, including product outcome, calculated carbon footprint, the potentially avoided production of a specific component or product, and possible precautions to be taken in relation to model sensitivity. The life cycle evaluation is presented in table 10 below:

Life cycle stage Key activities End outcome
Cylinder head manufacturing Manufacturing of cylinder head subcomponents

  • Inlet valve seat
  • Exhaust valve seat
  • O-ring for exhaust valve seat
  • Injector sleeve
  • Valve guide
  • Yoke pin / Guide bolt
  • Plug

Manufacturing of cylinder head

  • Cast iron

Energy use, infrastructure, and machinery

  • Production (casting)
  • Processing (machining)
  • Electricity use (IT)
  • Assembly

Transportation estimation

  • Lorry transportation from F.A.G Foundria, Italy to Germany
Product
New cylinder head
Carbon footprint
7,601 kg CO2 eq.
Most contributing parameter
Processing of cast iron
Cast Iron Welding Services cylinder head remanufacturing Indirect manufacturing of cylinder head subcomponents

  • Inlet valve seat
  • Exhaust valve seat
  • O-ring for exhaust valve seat
  • Injector sleeve
  • Valve guide
  • Yoke pin / Guide bolt
  • Plug

Cylinder head remanufacturing

  • Cast iron welding rods: 99.5% nickel rods
  • Natural gas
  • Compressed acetylene
  • Liquid nitrogen

Energy use, infrastructure, and machinery

  • Welding
  • Machining
  • Subcomponent fitting
  • Test & inspections
  • Electricity use (GB)

Transportation estimation

  • Lorry transportation: to and from Cast Iron Welding Services to Southampton
  • Sea freight transportation: Southampton to Philippines
Product
Remanufactured cylinder head
Carbon footprint
-6,924 kg CO2 eq.
Avoided product
New cylinder head
Most contributing parameter
Transportation
SA1
Cast Iron Welding Services cylinder head remanufacturing with +20% electricity use
Indirect manufacturing of cylinder head subcomponents

  • *Equal to remanufacturing process with no sensitivity

Cylinder head remanufacturing

  • Cast iron welding rods: 99.5% nickel rods
  • Natural gas
  • Compressed acetylene
  • Liquid nitrogen

Energy use, infrastructure, and machinery

  • Welding
  • Machining
  • Test & inspections
  • +20% Electricity use (GB)

Transportation estimation

  • Lorry transportation: to and from Cast Iron Welding Services to Southampton
  • Sea freight transportation: Southampton to Philippines
Product
Remanufactured cylinder head
Carbon footprint
-6,888 kg CO2 eq.
Avoided product
New cylinder head
SA2
Cast Iron Welding Services cylinder head remanufacturing with -20% electricity use
Indirect manufacturing of cylinder head subcomponents

  • *Equal to remanufacturing process with no sensitivity

Cylinder head remanufacturing

  • Cast iron welding rods: 99.5% nickel rods
  • Natural gas
  • Compressed acetylene
  • Liquid nitrogen

Energy use, infrastructure, and machinery

  • Welding
  • Machining
  • Test & inspections
  • -20% Electricity use (GB)

Transportation estimation

  • Lorry transportation: to and from Cast Iron Welding Services to Southampton
  • Sea freight transportation: Southampton to Philippines
Product
Remanufactured cylinder head
Carbon footprint
-6,960 kg CO2 eq.
Avoided product
New cylinder head
SA3
Cast Iron Welding Services cylinder head remanufacturing with steel welding rods
Indirect manufacturing of cylinder head subcomponents

  • *Equal to remanufacturing process with no sensitivity

Cylinder head remanufacturing

  • Cast iron welding rods: steel welding rods
  • Natural gas
  • Compressed acetylene
  • Liquid nitrogen

Energy use, infrastructure, and machinery

  • Welding
  • Machining
  • Test & inspections
  • Electricity use (GB)

Transportation estimation

  • Lorry transportation: to and from Cast Iron Welding Services to Southampton
  • Sea freight transportation: Southampton to Philippines
Product
Remanufactured cylinder head
Carbon footprint
-7,020 kg CO2 eq.
Avoided product
New cylinder head
SA4
Cast Iron Welding Services cylinder head remanufacturing with EU transportation
Indirect manufacturing of cylinder head subcomponents

  • *Equal to remanufacturing process with no sensitivity

Cylinder head remanufacturing

  • Cast iron welding rods: 99.5% nickel rods
  • Natural gas
  • Compressed acetylene
  • Liquid nitrogen

Energy use, infrastructure, and machinery

  • Welding
  • Machining
  • Test & inspections
  • Electricity use (GB)

Transportation estimation

  • Lorry transportation: to and from Cast Iron Welding Services to Fincantieri shipyard in Italy
Product
Remanufactured cylinder head
Carbon footprint
-6,996 kg CO2 eq.
Avoided product
New cylinder head
SA5
Cast Iron Welding Services cylinder head remanufacturing modelling framework test
Indirect manufacturing of cylinder head subcomponents

  • *Equal to remanufacturing process with no sensitivity

Cylinder head remanufacturing

  • *Equal to remanufacturing process with no sensitivity

Modelling robustness check

  • ReCiPe vs ILCD
Product
Remanufactured cylinder head
Carbon footprint
-7,004 kg CO2 eq.
Avoided product
New cylinder head
Cylinder head disposal Indirect manufacturing of cylinder head subcomponents

  • Theoretical life cycle stage
  • Cylinder head disposal to scrap merchant
  • Unknown waste pathway
  • Infrastructure for scrap merchant
  • Transport to scrap merchant in India

Cylinder head remanufacturing

  • *Equal to remanufacturing process with no sensitivity

Modelling robustness check

  • ReCiPe vs ILCD
Product
Scrap cast iron Scrap steel
Carbon footprint
140.4 kg CO2 eq.
Totals
  • S1: Business-as-usual
  • S2: CIWS remanufacturing
  • SA1: cylinder head remanufacturing with +20% electricity use
  • SA2: cylinder head remanufacturing with -20% electricity use
  • SA3: cylinder head remanufacturing with steel welding rods
  • SA4: cylinder head remanufacturing with EU transportation
  • SA5: cylinder head remanufacturing modelling framework test
  • Total carbon footprint: 7,752 kg CO2 eq.
  • Total carbon footprint: 824.4 kg CO2 eq.
  • Total carbon footprint: 850.0 kg CO2 eq.
  • Total carbon footprint: 790.8 kg CO2 eq.
  • Total carbon footprint: 729.6 kg CO2 eq.
  • Total carbon footprint: 746.4 kg CO2 eq.
  • Total carbon footprint: 835.2 kg CO2 eq.

Table 10 – Life cycle evaluation framework for the cylinder head and CIWS remanufacturing process incl. all sensitivity scenarios

Cylinder head repairs ship stern

1. Introduction

Cylinder head repairs ship bow hull

2. Life Cycle Assessment

Cylinder head repairs ship stern distance sunset

3. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

Cylinder head repairs container ships seaport

4. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts

Cylinder head repairs ship birds-eye view stern

5. Life Cycle Evaluation Framework

Cylinder head repairs sea at dusk

6. Life Cycle Conclusion